The average life expectancy has been increasing for the last hundred years. If at the beginning of the 20th century the average person did not live to be 40, then in 2022, many have overcome the milestone of 70 years. At the same time, the quality of life decreases with age, because people become more susceptible to diseases and injuries. We tell what affects life expectancy in women, and how risk factors can be reduced.
What the statistics say
In Russia, the average life expectancy is calculated by Rosstat. Interestingly, this indicator is rather predictive. The agency calculates the probability of death for each age, and then calculates the number of people born. Therefore, the indicator is called “life expectancy”. It shows how long, on average, a person of a certain year of birth will live if mortality rates remain unchanged.
Rosstat calculates data separately for rural and urban populations. Over the past hundred years, life expectancy has been gradually increasing. The historical maximum was recorded in 2019. Then the average woman could live a little over 78 years. The following year, the rate declined due to the pandemic, when mortality for all groups was higher than expected.
The data for 2022 has not yet been fully processed, but the head of the Ministry of Health has already announced that the figure is going up. From the end of 2021 to the end of 2022, the expected duration has grown by about two years, and has already managed to return to pre-coronavirus values. The President of Russia noted that one of the priority tasks in the country is to reach an average life expectancy of more than 80 years. This goal is planned to be achieved by 2030.
In addition to the total life expectancy, another factor matters – how many years of them a person will feel healthy. In Russia, this indicator was first calculated in 2019, and it amounted to 60.3 years. In 2020 – 58.9 years. More recent data has not been officially published, but it is already clear that this number is less than the total duration by 12-14 years. Perhaps the figure is even overestimated, because it is not customary for us to go to the doctor without a good reason. Most likely, good health leaves people earlier.
Why women live longer than men
Life expectancy is influenced by various factors. This is a genetic predisposition, eating habits and behavior, the level of hygiene and medicine in the country. Interestingly, gender also plays a role. Women live longer than men. This pattern is observed not only in different countries, but also in different biological species.
Science has not yet found an exact explanation for this phenomenon, but scientists have put forward many hypotheses. For example, men are more likely to eat unhealthy foods, have bad habits, and enjoy dangerous sports. These are social factors that make their lives shorter. There are also biological ones, for example, a different set of chromosomes and hormone levels.
So far, we cannot influence genetics. But it is up to everyone to reduce the social causes of low life expectancy. For example, you can secure a decent level of medicine even without large investments. Insurance helps with this. Good insurance is especially important in case of critical illness, when a person’s life is at stake. For example, when cancer is detected. If a person “ has insured his life , he can receive treatment in the best clinics in the world, and with payment for travel and accommodation. This way you can reduce one of the risk factors for early death, when a person dies due to the lack of quality medical care.
Risk factors for women
The Ministry of Health is conducting its own research to determine which diseases have a greater impact on life expectancy. The most common cause of death in women is:
- oncological diseases;
- diseases of the cardiovascular system;
- respiratory diseases.
These diseases are more dangerous for women than for men. Women’s health is weakened by pregnancy, childbirth, diseases of the reproductive system. Also, ladies are more likely to undergo surgical interventions (and not always successful). Some risks can be reduced, for example, by insuring yourself before surgery. Then the policy will cover the costs associated with treatment in case of an unfortunate set of circumstances.
Another factor is late diagnosis, due to which the disease is detected at an advanced stage. For example, cervical cancer with early diagnosis is treated in 90% of cases, but then the prognosis is much worse.
Late diagnosis is directly related to the lack of medical specialists. This is a common problem throughout the health care system. Due to low salaries in public institutions, doctors prefer to work in private clinics, and quality medical care becomes difficult to access. Until now, in small towns there are not even many narrow specialists, and you have to make an appointment with a therapist several weeks in advance. Of course, few people can pay enough attention to health in such conditions.
Many employers are realizing that the health care system is preventing their workers from being treated quickly and effectively. Therefore, large companies deal with this issue themselves. For example, they insure employees against accidents and issue corporate VHI policies. This helps to get medical care in private clinics or to compensate for the costs of treatment from selected doctors. You can also insure yourself. For example, take out a disability policy. Insurance does not reduce the risk of injury, but covers the cost of quality treatment.
Timely diagnosis helps not only to detect diseases in the early stages, but also to keep chronic problems under control. The state offers to undergo a medical examination in order to assess the state of one’s health. People under 40 years old can be examined free of charge every three years, and after 40 years old – annually. The medical examination program includes a basic examination by a therapist, basic tests and an in-depth examination if problems are found.
Another way to keep track of your health is the annual check-up, which includes the most relevant research according to gender and age. Its difference from medical examination is in an individual approach to problems. For example, programs for women may include different tests depending on age and medical history. Private clinics offer check-ups, and the number of studies varies depending on the program.
Here is an example of an annual screening recommended for women of all ages:
- Therapist’s consultation.
- Dentist’s consultation. It is better to visit this doctor every six months.
- Ophthalmologist’s consultation. The doctor will check visual acuity and measure intraocular pressure.
- Gynecologist’s consultation. In addition to the standard examination, it is mandatory to take a smear for oncocytology.
- Ultrasound of the mammary glands. Helps to find neoplasms at an early stage.
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs. For the diagnosis of diseases of the reproductive system, it can be performed during an examination by a gynecologist.
- Abdominal ultrasound. To assess the condition of the digestive tract.
- Ultrasound of the thyroid gland. In the early stages, it shows diffuse changes in the organ.
- General and biochemical analysis of blood.
- General urine analysis.
- The level of glucose in the blood.
- Thyroid hormones.
After 40 years, instead of ultrasound of the mammary glands, mammography is performed. Tests for hormones and total calcium are added, as well as a study of feces for occult blood. It is worth visiting a cardiologist for the first time to assess the risk of cardiovascular disease. For women over 50, it is also mandatory to study the level of bone density and periodically undergo EGD.
Check-up and clinical examination are good opportunities for a comprehensive assessment of the state of the body. It is worth visiting doctors not only in case of problems, but also for their prevention. Annual surveys will help assess the dynamics and notice “weak spots” that need special control in time.
How to protect yourself from risks
A healthy lifestyle and regular examinations are the basis of longevity. But not only the number of years lived is important, but also their quality. The period of illness now reaches 10-15 years and usually falls on retirement age. Chronic diseases, age-related diseases, severe consequences of accidents do not make our life better.
To reduce the period of an unhealthy state is one of the tasks of modern science. For example, throughout the world, hormone replacement therapy has been successfully used for menopausal women. It allows you to delay the diseases characteristic of menopause. We are talking about age-related fragility of bones, diseases of the cardiovascular system. There are other ways to increase healthy life expectancy. But none of them is provided within the framework of free medicine under compulsory medical insurance.
Maintaining a healthy state of the body is expensive, and the older the person, the more effort is required to maintain the usual quality of life. The state pension will not cover the financial costs of expensive treatment, vitamins and supplements, and rehabilitation after serious illnesses. Therefore, many people prefer to form pension savings on their own.
A good way to prepare for older age is investment life insurance. A person makes regular contributions that accumulate in the account and receives additional investment income in the form of an annual coupon. In addition, the entire term of the contract is covered by insurance coverage. In the event of a fatal outcome, the heirs will immediately receive the entire expected amount, even if the policyholder has made only a couple of contributions. At the end of the term of the contract, the insured person receives his savings back. Money can be used as a pension fund, spent on examinations and treatment, buy a country house or go on a trip.
For those who are not ready to immediately conclude a long-term contract, we also have shorter programs. For example, Smart Plus “is a program of accumulative life insurance with a high interest income.
Cumulative life insurance – special programs that allow you not only to receive an insurance payment if something happens to you, but also help you save up for important purposes – education, travel or repairs. How it works? You enter into an agreement, deposit money, and at the end of the agreement, you withdraw your savings along with interest.
Feature of ” Smart Plus ” is that it is a short-term insurance product. The contract is concluded for only 3 months, but at the same time it gives an income higher than deposits in banks.
Just three steps to protect your life and make money work:
1. Choose an amount from 100 thousand to 3 million rubles.
2. Conclude an insurance contract for 3 months and make a contribution.
3. After the completion of the contract, you receive money and interest.
Important! Contributions to the UA are protected from the claims of third parties: while the money is in the account, they cannot be withdrawn by bailiffs, the court or the former spouse. You can conclude an agreement not only for yourself, but also for any other person, not necessarily a relative. To conclude a contract, you only need a passport – registration is available online. And, by the way, you can terminate the contract ahead of schedule and without loss of interest. For example, if you need money in a month, you can withdraw both the investment amount and the accumulated interest.
How to increase life expectancy
Life extension belongs to the field of tasks of gerontology. This is the science that studies the mechanisms of aging. So far, guaranteed ways to increase life expectancy have not been invented. But there are already studies proving that a person can live better and age more slowly if certain rules are followed:
- Reduced calorie intake. With age, the metabolism slows down, and you need to strictly monitor your menu. Limiting fast carbohydrates and highly processed foods is the first thing to do. The basis of nutrition for longevity is vegetables, seafood, white meat and cereals.
- Rejection of bad habits. Alcohol, nicotine and drugs have a bad effect on the cardiovascular system.
- Physical activity. According to scientists, regular moderate exercise can increase longevity by about a year. This is not about professional sports, but about a half-hour daily walk at a fast pace.
- Strengthening the immune system. Many illnesses are caused by viruses that natural immunity could overcome. In this he is helped by a sufficient amount of vitamins, A and D in the body. But it is important not to allow an overabundance of them, since an excess also leads to health problems.
- Fight stress. Scientists mention meditation as an effective way to reduce stress levels, and with it, normalize blood pressure.
In general, methods to delay old age are still reduced to the well-known healthy lifestyle. Good nutrition, sleep and movement are the main ways to maintain health at any age. At the same time, it is important not to forget about regular medical examinations that will help detect diseases in the early stages.